The object of flour milling is to separate the kernel,
Breeding programs in many worldwide research centres have improved baking quality and enriched nutrition.
Wheat and other cereal grains do not contain appreciable amounts of vitamins A, D, or C, but do contribute minerals and the vitamins thiamine, riboflavin, and niacin. Breeding programs can be expected eventually to improve the total nutritive value of wheat.
Proteins must not be denatured during the drying process because this action destroys the vital dough-forming properties. Gluten is mainly used in the bread making industry. Dried gluten contains 75% to 85% protein, 5% to 10% lipids and some starch.
Physical and chemical properties of wheat differ from those of other cereal grains because wheat proteins can form gluten, a necessary substance in bread making. Gluten-rich flour develops into a dough that retains fermentation gases, thus causing the dough to rise.
Wheat is commonly used in bread making
Durum wheat is used in pasta products
Club wheat is used in cakes and pastries
Wheat ground into flour and made into baked products is the form
By-products of flour milling process are bran, shorts, germ, and low-grade flour usually marketed as feed.